Saturday, May 23, 2020
Summarize: The main argument in HanleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Everyday Things in Premodern Japan, is that the standard of living is an inaccurate way to evaluate the pre-industrialization of Japan. Hanley breaks down her argument by explaining it in three suitable subparts. She explains that the standard of living is an insufficient way to indicate how people lived during that period, an insufficient way of examining sine qua nons of the industrialization, and an insufficient way to set side by side with other industrialized states during that period. Explain: Hanley makes arguments to justify her alternative, but she first uses a method that is diabolical. She first presents the current method that economists uses to compare states and then she shows how it is insufficient to use it. The term standard of living is broke down by Hanley and then opens way for her alternative to comparing states during the period of pre-industrialization. Hanley first undermines the (GDP) standard of living, and thus gives a logical reasoning why it is inaccurate to use when comparing states. The standard of living is used by economists to evaluate the Ã¢â¬Å"quantities of goods and services available for consumptionÃ¢â¬ (Hanley, 1997). She then explains, it is good to use the standard of living method in modern nations, but then explains, Ã¢â¬Å"the standard of living is only as good as the data used to calculate itÃ¢â¬ (Hanley, 1997) She is clearly stating that method of standard of living, is only good if you have theShow MoreRelatedKnowledge Value Chain4146 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pageswhich should be measured by the core competence of corporation. This article also provides a cross-reference for e-commerce researchers and practitioners. Knowledge and knowledge management Knowledge vs information Knowledge refers to an observer s distinction of ``objects through which he brings forth from the background of experience a coherent and self-consistent set of coordinated actions (Zeleny, 1987). Through the process of distinction, individual pieces of data and information becomeRead MoreEssay on Mount Cedar Technologies10813 Words Ã |Ã 44 PagesMount Cedar Technologies Inc. Case Study Analysis By BDFP Consulting Prepared by: Barbara Boliver Doug Rouillard Fahnia Thomas Patrick Delaney Publication Date: 3/1/2012 Table of Contents IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦........1 Chapter One: Mission Statement, Goals and StrategiesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦........2 Chapter Two: Evaluate the CultureÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..............4 Chapter Three: Effective and Motivating TechniquesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦....Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦........Ã¢â¬ ¦9 ChapterRead Moreworking memory18399 Words Ã |Ã 74 Pagesstands, as so often in science, on the shoulders of predecessors. What the earliest workers did not have were the tools provided by modern neuroscience. Nonetheless, their work is a good place to begin. Comprehension Check: 1. Give an example of an everyday situation in which you would need to use working memory. 2. If working memory were a capacity of a computer, what component might it correspond to, and why? 2. FROM PRIMARY MEMORY TO WORKING MEMORY: A BRIEF HISTORY The notion that there is a distinct
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Set aside those mushy, sentimental words of love. Valentines Day is the perfect occasion to tease your lover with the naughty humor of these quotes. Funny words may bring a smile, but witty jabs add a spark to the relationship. This Valentines Day, roll on the floor with laughter. Helen Rowland: A husband is what is left of the lover after the nerve is extracted. Brendan Francis: A man is already halfway in love with any woman who listens to him. Miguel De Cervantes: Absence: that common cure of love. Aerosmith: Falling in love is so hard on the knees. Author Unknown: If love is blind, why is lingerie so popular? Laurence J. Peter: Its better to have loved and lost than to do forty pounds of laundry a week. Henny Youngman: Ive been in love with the same woman for forty-one years. If my wife finds out, shell kill me. Jonathan Swift: Lord! I wonder what fool it was that first invented kissing. Cathy Carlyle: Love is an electric blanket with somebody else in control of the switch. Jules Renord: Love is like an hour glass, with the heart filling up as the brain empties. W. Somerset Maugham: Love is only a dirty trick played on us to achieve continuation of the species. Woody Allen: Love is the answer, but while youre waiting for the answer, sex raises some pretty good questions. John Barrymore: Love is the delightful interval between meeting a beautiful girl and discovering that she looks like a haddock. Reed Bennet, Valentines Day: Love is the only shocking act left on the planet. William Caxton: Love lasteth as long as the money endureth. Richard Friedman: Money will buy you a fine dog, but only love can make it wag its tail. Charles Dickens: Never sign a Valentine with your own name. Albert Einstein: No, this trick wont work. How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love? Henry Kissinger: Nobody will ever win the battle of the sexes. Theres too much fraternizing with the enemy. Erich Segal: True love comes quietly, without banners or flashing lights. If you hear bells, get your ears checked. Marie E. Eschenbach: We dont believe in rheumatism and true love until after the first attack. Oscar Wilde: Women are made to be loved, not understood. Henny Youngman: You canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy love, but you can pay heavily for it.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Darwin destroyed the concept of human specialness I would say I disagree quite strongly with the assertion that Darwin destroyed the specialness of humanity. For this relatively brief paper I am going to attempt to refute this claim and try to highlight some of the things that highlight how we have kept the same level of Ã¢â¬ËspecialnessÃ¢â¬â¢ that we have always had. There are many people who would say that we humans are the only beings with full consciousness, in the words of a great many this would translate to having a soul. We will write a custom essay sample on Darwin Destroyed the Concept of Human Specialness or any similar topic only for you Order Now Humans surely have a soul-like property, a mind, something that separates us from the multitudes of lower species from the smorgasbord of earthly life. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t my purpose for this paper to discuss whether or not we have a soul but I do intend to talk about what constitutes our mind, our selves. The fact that we as humans possess a high degree of consciousness to me spells a very special kind of existence. Can even our nearest intelligent creatures on the tree of life appreciate the magnificence of life? Can a chimpanzee sit back and admire the beauty of the sprawling life in the jungle? Does he marvel at his own bodies ability to repair itself after he has been in a bloody brawl with a rival? Can a dolphin be awestruck by the morning sun glistening on the surface of the water? Does he wonder what life would be like for him if he were one of those surface beings he often sees on boats in the ocean? Humans are extraordinary because, being the most advanced form of life on the planet, we possess brains larger than all other forms of life(save for some large mammals but even then ours are much bigger proportionally) With this we have evolved two magnificent features which can only set us worlds apart from and ahead of all other life forms. We have this amazing sense of self, sense of awareness- in a word -consciousness. This grants us the capability of knowing who and what we are (to a large extent anyway), and where we came from (Darwin is owed some credit in this field). It is the ability to see beauty in a sunset on a savannah, to hear the splendour in Tchaikovskys The Nutcracker, to read great works of literature and be able to travel the universe with our imaginations. The other great feature we have as a follow on from having large brains is the wonderful power of language. This splendid trait has gone hand in hand with consciousness to create the incredibly unique life form that homo sapiens has become. Our ability to understand the universe and our position in it is one of the glories of the human species. Our ability to link mind to mind by language, and especially to transmit our thoughts across the centuries is another (Dawkins 2008 p3) Our advanced cultures have truly become magnificent phenomena. We have complex, yet highly virtuous systems of ethics and values. Largely stemming from our aforementioned large brains and the use of language we have self evolved to create ways of living that set us apart from all the rest of earthly creatures, both those alive today and all the previous inhabitants of the earth including ones from bygone eras. Humanity is replete with themes of co-operation, love, compassion, altruism, sympathy for our fellow beings as well as for all other life forms. We have been capable of many such virtues for a long time, since we became human one could say. As John Eccles (1980 p204) reminds us, there are snippets of evidence that as far back as eighty thousand years ago Neanderthal man held ceremonial burials- a truly altruistic act. Or, as he also noted- the bones of two men dated from sixty thousand years ago which show they were incapacitated for up to two years yet they had been kept alive by caring tribes folk. There is other evidence from as far back as this of the compassionate behaviour between members of humanity and we all know only too well of absolutely countless examples of it in recent history and of course in present day. For all modern mans shortcomings and problems in our societies, we have always been gifted with a great sense of right and wrong, of cruelty and kindness. With this majestic property that is consciousness comes the boundless faculty of thought. We are capable to reason, plan, remember to a limitless degree. Technology today has become something we could never have imagined even one hundred years ago. We have invented the most ingenious and sophisticated equipment to be able to look inside our brains. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)scans and the more recent positron-emission topography(PET) scans are machines with wonderful capabilities for seeing goings on in the brain. We can monitor which parts of the brain are being used when we experience certain thoughts. We cannot however, as Ward highlights(2008 p147), even begin to monitor in advance what people are thinking. Our thoughts are far and away more complex and profound than any other animals (or machine) can hope to have and, importantly, remain ours and ours only. If we try to look at the bigger picture, the macroscopic view of things, are we still special? When we gaze up into the night sky and contemplate our place in the universe it is very easy to become overawed by the sheer scale of the cosmos and our relative minuteness in it. How can there be anything special about us when we are almost nothing in relation to the vast universe. I believe it is not that we are in the universe but that we are the universe. Ã¢â¬Å"Far from exposing human beings as incidental products of blind physical forces, science suggests that the existence of conscious organisms is a fundamental feature of the universeÃ¢â¬ (Davies 1992 p21). As Davies alludes to here humanity is actually an intrinsic part of the universe and, whether or not there are other advanced conscious beings far out in space, we are or are part of the pinnacle of life, of nature, and of the cosmos. If the universe is one giant living organism, a vast clockwork mechanism, a massive computer then we are its brain, its central cog, its CPU. I try to imagine the perspective of a person who would make a statement like the title for this essay. I can understand the point whereby humanity is seen as simply the result of a very long line of life adapting and developing or, to use the term elucidated and made famous by Darwin- evolution. Life is just mechanical, they might say they have learned from Darwin, it only instinctively drives to keep living. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s so special about what is simply the as yet highest point of this unconscious , robotic like endeavour in nature. Are we more special than the animals below us on the food chain, or before us in eras like the dinosaurs. Was even the earliest amoeba not as special as us given its importance in the chain of events? This viewpoint, while largely correct in its facts and assumptions, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give any credence to what homo sapiens has become since he has evolved from the ape. Hopefully this paper has made some of a case as to why the two legged big brained organisms that we are have a deep specialness to them. Bibliography Davies, Paul. 1992. THE MIND OF GOD. London: Penguin Books Dawkins, Richard. 2008. MODERN SCIENCE WRITING. Oxford: Oxford University Press Eccles, John C.. 1980. THE HUMAN PSYCHE. Berlin: Routledge Ward, Keith. 2008. The Big Questions in Science and Religion. Pennsylvania: Templeton Foundation Press How to cite Darwin Destroyed the Concept of Human Specialness, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Regard Customer And The Sales Objective Answer: Introduction This report creates the market planning for launching a new product that is Bio-magnetic wrist watch in the Australian market that incorporates latest electronics technologies for the fingers touch and activities. The report analyzes the external and internal environment of the business is launching a new product in the market of Australia such as marketing, industry, competitors, consumers, company. The report also determines the main threats, opportunities, strength and weakness and the main problems that will be directed accessed in the plan, creating suitable strategies in order to implement a marketing strategy plan, determining the appropriate control techniques for marketing strategy plan and suitable measures to evaluate a marketing strategy plan. Steps of marketing plan According to Ernst et al. (2010), the marketing planning for launching Bio-magnetic watch in the market consist several steps which are explained below: Situational analysis Situational analysis is a collection of techniques that supervisor use in order to examine an organizations external and internal environment to comprehend the business potential, consumers and business environment (Hollensen, 2015). Micro-environment Micro factors are those factors which directly impact the organization. The main micro-factors which affect the company are as follows: Intermediaries The company can use various intermediaries which are the middlemen that are retailers, agents, distributing market service business for the watch. Customers The customers buy the product only when it fulfills their objective. Biomagnetic wrist watch helps the people in maintaining energy level rises and balanced. This watch offers a whole wellness by restorative nerves and improving the blood flow. Company launches an innovative product in order to attract the consumers in a wide range. Competitors According to Kapferer (2012), there are competitors in the market which also offer latest watches like a Mp3 watch which offer various features with the latest technology. So, the company should establish an effective method of accounting to bring better results. Macro-environment The macro factors which influence company are as follows: Demographic According to Kim et al. (2012), Australia is world 6 biggest countries in which over 85 percent lived in urban areas and approximately lived in the capital cities. The target of the company product is young generation aging from 20-35 years. Technological In Australia, there is a large number of opportunities for creativity are available. Thus, it also based on the companies that at what extent research and customer response prefer. Opportunities and issue statement The manager of a company should identify the major threats, opportunities, strength and weakness and the key major problems which will be accessed in the marketing plan of Bio-magnetic wrist watch: Threats Challengers with large worldwide availability and brand recall is a danger for the product Copy or duplicate of the watches Economic unreliability which states people will spend less Opportunities Company can increase its worldwide retail connection to involve more companies The product with its positioning can launch a luxury unique and innovative edition line of its watches by considering the latest technology in developing countries Strength The company provides lifetime warranty to its customers in order to gain the faith of the product The product holds high recall and product awareness in Australia Helps the people in keeping energy level up and balanced Weakness The company has low product recall in exceptional few markets like the UK which are their powerful markets The product has not been able to penetrate internationally and has fewer brand recall in comparison to industry innovators Major issues According to Leekha Chhabra Sharma (2014), the key issues or problems which will be addressed in launching a new product in the market are as follows: Determine market segments The major problem which will be addressed in the marketing plan is identifying the market segment for the product. Marketers utilize these market segments to build a target market for their product or service (McDonald Wilson, 2016). Thus, in order to market Bio-magnetic wrist watch in the market, it is important that company should customize the marketing and sales efforts to particularly reach the segment of the population that will buy company products. Differentiate a product Business needs to frequently distinguish their products from their competitors. For gaining the success in the market, business needs to be continually establishing new value and advantages in new product and services in order to remain in a market leader position. Marketing objectives Basically, there are two types of marketing objective which are explained below: Short-term objective The principle objective of the company is to enhance the sales volume of Bio-magnetic watches and build a superior goodwill of the product in the customer mind. Long-term objective According to McNally et al. (2011), the long term goal of business is launching a Bio-magnetic watches are as follows: Customer retention Enlarging large market share Initiating latest technological changes for the watches Marketing strategies Target segmentation The company will target on the basis of: Demographic: Age 6-65 years Social class: working class, middle class, lower level, students Lifestyle: culture-oriented, sports-oriented Positioning strategies The company can position its products by including the various factors such as product advantage, price, and quality, use and application (Matthiesen Phau, 2010). Branding strategies Branding means creating value for the customer and the main key strategies of Bio-magnetic watches: Define brand: For creating a strong brand, the company should look at the skills and expertise that business possess. Brand position: Bio-magnetic watches have unique and innovative benefits which will attract the customers with the special value proposition. Marketing mix strategies The marketing mix strategies for Bio-magnetic watches are: Product: Company launches a new product of wearable accessory that is Bio-magnetic wristwatch with the latest advancement and innovative features. Place: Company can sell their products to final users. The company can use a marketing channel in order to create interdependent companies engaged in the procedure of creating watches available for use or consumption by the consumer. Price: Company launching a new product for the special class of consumers, so the company can use value based pricing. Promotion: The company can sell their product to the customer by the several promoting sources such as advertisement, magazines and newspapers, sign board and feedback form. Action programs According to Taghian (2010), the Bio-magnetic watch has strong product benefits contrasted with current market offerings. To accomplish business goals, the company will offer innovative watch in a variety of plans at a recommended retail cost assumes $ 45. Promoting of the product will concentrate on the uniqueness of the Bio-magnetic watch and is weighted toward print and purpose of-procurement shows. Budget analysis The projected budget analysis of Australian multinational IT company: Projected profit and expense Profit $ Sales 15000 Revenue from other services 4000 Revenue from rent of Skateline ECP 25250 Revenue from rent of Escoot Scape Less: rental fee waived on purchase 12750 (1275) 55725 Expenses Promotional cost: Total event cost 20250 Physical store: Delivery charges 500 Leasing of unit with utilities 7500 Maintenance of PEVs 2750 Depreciation 6500 Manpower cost Salary of employees 6000 Other expenses Distribution of pay-outs 8595 52095 Net Profit (Sales-expenses) 3630 Measuring marketing effectiveness According to Wymer (2011), the major techniques used in order to control and monitor the marketing plan of Bio-magnetic watches are: Customer surveys: A survey with the first purchaser helps the business to identify the common features of customer who like the product, data which could use to strain marketing strategies. Pipeline tracking: This method can track that how many customers companies have in each phase and then compare it to what business estimated. Marketing reviews: Having marketing team such aseeting every week will give the review of the status of the product. This method focuses on attention from a different group of a person which can make an actual gap in noticing issues. Conclusion From this report, it has been concluded that marketing planning is very essential in launching a new product in the market. This report explains the market planning of launching a new Bio-magnetic wrist watch in Australia and describes all the essential elements that are necessary for the marketing planning of a new product such as marketing strategies, positioning, branding strategies and marketing mix. References Ernst, H., Hoyer, W.D. Rbsaamen, C., 2010. Sales, marketing, and research-and-development cooperation across new product development stages: implications for success.Journal of Marketing,74(5), pp.80-92. Hollensen, S., 2015.Marketing management: A relationship approach. Pearson Education. Kapferer, J.N., 2012.The new strategic brand management: Advanced insights and strategic thinking. Kogan page publishers. Kim, K.H., Jeon, B.J., Jung, H.S., Lu, W. Jones, J., 2012. Effective employment brand equity through sustainable competitive advantage, marketing strategy, and corporate image.Journal of Business Research,65(11), pp.1612-1617. Leekha Chhabra, N. Sharma, S., 2014. Employer branding: strategy for improving employer attractiveness.International Journal of Organizational Analysis,22(1), pp.48-60. Matthiesen, I.M. Phau, I., 2010. Brand image inconsistencies of luxury fashion brands: A buyer-seller exchange situation model of Hugo Boss Australia.Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal,14(2), pp.202-218. McDonald, M. Wilson, H., 2016.Marketing Plans: How to prepare them, how to profit from them. John Wiley Sons. McNally, R.C., Akdeniz, M.B. Calantone, R.J., 2011. New product development processes and new product profitability: Exploring the economics role of speed to market and product quality.Journal of Product Innovation Management,28(s1), pp.63-77. Taghian, M., 2010. Marketing planning: Operationalising the market orientation strategy.Journal of marketing management,26(9-10), pp.825-841. Wymer, W., 2011. Developing more effective social marketing strategies.Journal of Social Marketing,1(1), pp.17-31.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Lab Report- Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Paper Neurons (also known as neurons, nerve cells and nerve fibers) are electrically excitable and the most important cells in the nervous system that functions to process and transmit information. Neurons have a large number of extensions called dendrites. They often look likes branches or spikes extending out from the cell body. It is primarily the surfaces of the dendrites that receive chemical messages from other neurons. One extension is different from all the others, and is called the axon. Although in some neurons, it is hard to distinguish from the entries, in others it is easily distinguished by its length. The purpose of the axon is to transmit an electro-chemical signal to other neurons, sometimes over a considerable distance. Longer axons are usually covered with a myelin sheath, a series of fatty cells which have wrapped around an axon many times. They serve a similar function as the insulation around electrical wire. At the very end of the axon is the axon ending. It is there that the electro-chemical signal that has traveled the length of the axon is converted into a chemical message that travels to the next neuron. (Dry. C. George Before, 2009). Axons are what make up nerves. We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report- Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report- Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report- Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A nerve is a bundle of neurons fibers or processes wrapped in connective tissue that extends to and/or from the CONS and visceral organs or structures of the body periphery (Marine Mitchell, 2009). In this experiment we will work with a nerve The action potential we will see on this experiment reflects the cumulative action potentials of all the neurons in the nerve, called a compound nerve action potential. Although an action potential follows the all-or none law within a single neuron, it does not necessarily follows the all-or-none law within an entire nerve. When you electrically stimulate a nerve at a given voltage, the stimulus may result in deportation of most of the neurons but not necessarily all of them. To achieve deportation of all of the neurons, a higher stimulus voltage may be needed ( Marine Mitchell, 2009). Seaplanes in the body all begin with the resting membrane potential. This is the natural state of a nerve before it is presented with a stimulus (Martini, Nathan Bartholomew, 2012). Resting membrane potential is important because it is necessary in order for a synapse to occur (Marine Mitchell, 2009). This resting Tate stands at -map because of three factors. First the ionic composition of the extracurricular and intracellular fluid varies in their charge. The Extracurricular fluid has a negative charge because of the An+ ion that exist, just as the intracellular fluid has a negative charge because of K+ ions and negatively charged proteins (Martini, Nathan Bartholomew, 2012). Second the cells have an uneven distribution because of the existence of sodium and potassium leak channels. This allows the creation of an electrochemical gradient, which ultimately is the force that guides the conduction of an action potential. The electrochemical gradient is created by sodium-potassium pump which is responsible for exchanging 3 An+ ions out while bringing in 2 K+ ions (Martini, Nathan Bartholomew, 2012). Third, the resting membrane potential varies in permeability based on the type of ion. Membranes are more easily permeable by K+ ions because of their size, which is responsible for the negative charge during the resting state (Martini, Nathan Bartholomew, 2012) Without a resting potential, we would not have a threshold to conduct an action potential. When a stimulus is presented, it requires a certain excitability, or popularization level of at least map to map (Martini, Nathan Bartholomew, 2012). The action potential depends on the threshold stimulus because of the all or none principle. This states that if a stimulus does not break the required threshold level, no action potential will occur (Martini, Nathan Bartholomew, 2012). However, if a threshold does uphold this principle, an action potential is created and a synapse begins. When membrane is exposed to a certain chemical, its response is either excited or inhibited. When a membrane is excited deportation begins. When the membrane depilatories the resting membrane potential of -70 NV becomes less negative. When the membrane potential reaches 0 NV, indicating there is no charge difference across the membrane. The sodium ion channels start to close and potassium ion channels open. By the time the sodium ion channels finally close. The membrane potential has reached +35 NV. The opening of the potassium channels allows K+ to flow out of the cell down its electrochemical gradient ( ion of like charge are repelled from each other). The flow of K+ out of the cell causes the membrane potential to move in a negative direction. This is preferred to as revitalization. ( Marine Mitchell, 2009). As the transmigrate potential comes back down towards its resting potential level and the potassium channels begins to close, the transmittance potential level goes just below -map, causing a brief period of hyperventilation (Martini, Nathan Bartholomew, 2012). Finally, as the potassium channels close, the membrane turns back to its resting potential until it is excited or inhibited again. In this experiment we will be dealing with two chemicals that intend to inhibit a nerve impulse. Curare is a toxic substance that interferes with the neural remission between motor neurons and skeletal muscles. Curare competes with acetylenes -or Ach- for receptors on muscle cells. Acetylenes is a chemical messenger that normally transmits nerve impulses and activates muscles receptors. Schaeffer, 2010). Loading is a chemical substance that inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses by blocking An ion flux across nerve membranes. In other words Loading is a local anesthetic that blocks voltage- gated An channels at low concentrations, it would make it harder to reach the threshold for firing action potential at high concentrations, and it would stop the action potential entirely. Materials/ Methods This experiment was conducted using the lab manual Human Anatomy Physiology by Marine Mitchell, 2009. Exercisers neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses on Physiology 8. 0 page 131 The activities that were used in this exercise were o Activity 6- testing the Effects of curare page 131 o Activity 7- Testing the Effects of Loading page 131 Results Effects of Curare versus Loading on a Nerve Voltage (NV)Action Potential Notes Curare 2. 0 NV Inaction potential begins at 3. NV Amplitude increases by very little and remains constant soon after. 3. 0 NV Yes 4. NV yes Loading 2. 0 NV No No action potential is recognized 3. NV No 4. NV No Using a frog nerve, two inhibitory chemicals were place onto the nerve to determine what inhibitory properties were seen after stimulating at the threshold voltage for this nerve. Discussion To have a better understanding of the respond to a stimulus and action potential of a nerve (In this case a frog sciatic nerve) we executed this experiment, and realized that numerous physical and chemical factors can impair the ability of a nerve to function. On the first exp eriment we used Curare that at 3. NV created an action attention on the nerve. At the neuromuscular junction, the action potential occurs in the presentation motor neuron, which releases acetylenes during an action potential. Synapses is a junction between two neurons. The presentation neuron terminal is the one that releases a neurotransmitter in response to an action potential. The posthypnotic neuron is the one that receives the neurotransmitter and may undergo an action potential (and become a presentation to the next nerve cell) if the neurotransmitters stimulate the cell enough. When curare is present, it will block acetylenes from binding to its acceptors on the muscle fiber, in turn stopping the muscle from contracting. They key point is that this effect is exclusively post synaptic. The presentation neuron still fires the identical action potential with or without the drug, it still release neurotransmitter. When curare is present, only the downstream effect is blocked. Loading showed success by having an inhibitory effect on a nerve impulse. With a range of electrical voltages from 2. NV to 4. 0 NV, no action potential was shown. This is what an inhibitory chemical intends to do inhibit any response by binding to the axon terminals of the presentation neuron. Specifically, it blocks the voltage-gated sodium channels that allow the influx of sodium when the nerve reaches the threshold voltage thus preventing an action potential. No action potential means no nerve impulse. A nerve must be stimulated and that stimulation must meet or exceed the threshold le vel required for activity to follow. Then as an impulse occurs, such as the nerve with loading being stimulated there must be either a period of inhibition or excitement that causes the membranes permeability to change. If a stimulation was intended to be excitatory the process of generating an action potential would occur, followed by revitalization and hyperventilation. However, in inhibitory responses, the goal is to see no action potential. If the intention is to prevent a stimulus from occurring, creating an action potential is not desired. It is important to understand the properties of substances such as these to better understand their intended effect. In order for them to be used properly one must know what intention of these substances to then provide a proper use for them. For example, one WOUld not propose to administer loading to someone who has regular heart function, because that would suppress their art levels below the threshold level. In conclusion nerve impulses all begin with a stimulus that either causes excitement or inhibition from a certain stimulus (Marine MitcheIl, 2009). If a nerve is excited the process of creating an action potential follows in order to achieve a chemical synapse. In other words, when a nerve is stimulated certain messages able to be transported in and out of the cell. However, in an inhibitory response such as the one witnessed with loading. This experiment determined the difference in excitatory versus inhibitory stimuli in a nerve. It allowed us to visualize the synaptic activity occurring based on a certain chemical which allows us to better understand the effects certain substances have on nerves.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Common Plastics We Use Every Single Day You probably do not realize the impact that the invention of plastic has had in your life. In just 60 short years, plastics popularity has grown considerably. This is largely due to just a few reasons. They can be easily molded into a wide range of products, and they offer benefits that other materials do not. How Many Types of Plastic Are There? You may think that plastic is just plastic, but there are actually about 45 different families of plastics. In addition, each of these families can be made with hundreds of different variations. By changing different molecular factors of the plastic, they can be made with different properties, including flexibility, transparency, durability, and more. Thermoset or Thermoplastics? Plastics can all be separated into two primary categories:Ã thermoset and thermoplastic. Thermoset plastics are those that when cooled and hardened retain their shape and cannot return to original form. Durability is a benefit meaning that they can be used for tires, auto parts, aircraft parts, and more. Thermoplastics are less hard than the thermosets. They can become soft when heated and can return to their original form. They are easily molded to be formed into fibers, packaging, and films. Polyethylene Most household plastic packaging is made from polyethylene. It comes in almost 1,000 different grades. Some of the most common household items are the plastic film, bottles, sandwich bags, and even types of piping. Polyethylene can also be found in some fabrics and in mylar as well. Polystyrene Polystyrene can form a harder, impact-resistant plastic that is used for cabinets, computer monitors, TVs, utensils, and glasses. If it is heated and the air is added to the mixture, it turns into what is called EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) also known by the Dow Chemical tradename, Styrofoam. This is a lightweight rigid foam that is used for insulation and for packaging. Polytetrafluoroethylene or Teflon This type of plastic was developed by DuPont in 1938. The benefits of it are that it is almost frictionless on the surface and it is a stable, strong, and is a heat-resistant type of plastic. It is most commonly used in products like bearings, film, plumbing tape, cookware, and tubing, as well as waterproof coatings and films. Polyvinyl Chloride or PVC This type of plastic is durable, non-corrosive, as well as affordable. This is why it is used for pipes and plumbing. It does have one downfall, however, and that is the fact that a plasticizer has to be added to make it soft and moldable and this substance may leach out of it over a long period of time, which makes it brittle and subject to breaking. Polyvinylidene Chloride or Saran This plastic is recognized by its ability to conform to the shape of a bowl or other item. It is used mainly for films and wraps that need to be impermeable to food odors. Saran wrap is one of the most popular wraps for storing food. Polyethylene LDPE and HDPE Perhaps the most common type of plastic is polyethylene. This plastic can be separated into two different types, including low-density polyethylene and high-density polyethylene. The differences in them make them ideal for different uses. For example, LDPE is soft and flexible, so it is used in garbage bags, films, wraps, bottles, and disposable gloves. HDPE is a harder plastic and is used mainly in containers, but was first introduced in the hula hoop. As you can tell, the world of plastics is quite large, and getting larger with the recycling of plastics. Learning more about the different types of plastic can enable you to see that this invention has had a strong impact on the world at large. From drinking bottles to sandwich bags to pipes to cookware and more, plastic is a big part of your everyday life, no matter what type of life you lead.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Organizational Culture Analysis - Research Paper Example It is the hope of this author that such a level of discussion will be beneficial to the reader in terms of helping them to gain a greater understanding, not only the particular store in question, or the retail chain, but the way in which culture is oftentimes represented America. Firstly, with respect to the observable artifacts, it was clear and apparent from day one that the level and type of interaction with the consumer was the primary drive that all of the human resources literature and media consisted of. I distinctly remember the hours of video training that were required prior to even beginning the job in question. For instance, each and every situation that was presented, with the exception of those situations that involved fellow coworkers, was concentric upon maximizing the satisfaction of the consumer and minimizing the difficulties or negative emotions that an employee might represent. In retrospect, it is obvious that all of this was performed as a means of ensuring that profitability remained at a maximum. As the old saying goes, Ã¢â¬Å"the customer is always rightÃ¢â¬ . Ultimately, this particular quote was incorporated within the training literature and served as a backbone with respect to the way in which the employees/stakeholders sought to go about their daily tasks. An espoused value that was promoted heavily within the organization was with respect to the ethical conduct that employees represented. Whereas it is oftentimes the case that individual employers hammer home such issues as the need to come to work on time, the importance and relevance of abstaining from racist, sexist, or ageist language and actions, or the need to give more time and energy to the details of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s labor, the particular workplace in question had an espoused value system that was almost entirely concentric upon ethics (Baack, 1998). Although it is true that they engaged with the other topics that have been referenced above, the